Inspenet, February 16, 2023
The Kyoto Protocol (KP) on climate change was approved on December 11, 1997, however, due to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on February 16, 2005.
The KP aims to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The protocol agreed to a reduction of at least 5.0% in gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane gas (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and fluorinated industrial gases such as: hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ).
This legal instrument obliges developed countries to comply with the objectives of reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The first commitment period of the Protocol began in 2008 and ended in 2012. The second began on January 1, 2013 and ended on December 31, 2020.
Despite the efforts, the application of the Kyoto Protocol has not managed to stop the increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. A 2014 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) report highlights that the amount of these gases reached a record figure of 397.7 parts per million (ppm).
On October 2, 2020, 144 States/parties had submitted the necessary instruments of acceptance for the entry into force, as a new multilateral treaty, of the so-called Doha Amendment for a second period of compliance with commitments (2013-2020) of the Protocol. of Kyoto (PK). This amendment had been prepared and approved at the COP in Doha, Qatar, in December 2012, and it took eight years to be ratified.
The Doha Amendment applies to approximately 11% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the Amendment included nitrogen trifluoride as one of the gases to be covered by the Amendment.
Source : https://www.telesurtv.net/news/protocolo-kioto-cambio-climatico-estado-actual-20210215-0082.html
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